Union of New Brunswick Indians

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Natural Resources


UNBI Training Institute

UNBITI Graduation

New Brunswick Free Tuition Program

FNIGC National Student Bursary

UNBITI Application Form

UNBI Training Institute

Tel: 506-458-9444
Fax: 506-458-2850

Nelson Solomon, Principal
Contact by Email

Starla McDougall, Vice Principal
Contact by Email

Vicki O'Sullivan, Instructor - Early Childhood Education     

Samantha Ratti, ECE / Admin Support

UNBITI Application Form

                                       Open House June 2016
Nelson Solomon; Principal             Drummer Natalie Sappier
Starla McDougall, Vice Principal
Darrell Paul, Executive Officer

The UNBI Board of Directors authorized the establishment of the Training Institute in 1994 as a key component of the UNBI's activities and became incorporated as a non-profit organization in May 2009. Its purpose is to provide post-secondary and other educational opportunities for the people, and by the people, of the First Nation communities.

All programs and workshops are open to First Nations as well as non-native students.  Curriculum has been designed to ensure that students have their choice of whether they could work on or off-reserve.

The UNBI Training Institute is registered to grant specific academic credentials for specific technical or vocational training programs with regards to the general enabling legislation of

  • Private Occupational Training Act (R.S.N.B. 1973, c. P-16.1)
  • General Regulation (O.C. 84-679) - Private Occupational Training Act

The UNBI Training Institute is registered with Canada and New Brunswick Student Loans as well as with the Department of Indian Affairs for funding purposes. It is also registered under the New Brunswick Private Occupational Training Act and a member of the National Association of Career Colleges.   

UNBI Training Institute is located at:  

Union of New Brunswick Indians

75 Melissa Street, Unit 1
Richibucto Road, New Brunswick
E3A 6V9

Tel: 506-458-9444
Fax: 506-458-2850

UNBI Training Institute Inc. is the only private non-profit training institute registered with the New Brunswick Association of Career Colleges (NBACC) in the province.  UNBITI provides teaching, coaching, and resources to help secure the best future possible for children in their communities. Our vision is to move forward in a complete and all encompassing manner.  We will accomplish this through proper education that is ongoing and ever changing reflecting the needs of our people. The importance of the early years to children's lives is now beyond question. There is an urgent need to move forward, so that First Nations children can enjoy equitable access to high-quality early education.  

The way forward requires placing learning and development at the heart of our policies and practices in early childhood. We need to have meaningful conversations with all educators present and future and to include parents in these conversations as the children's first and most important teachers. This is not a slight undertaking and yet it is not insurmountable. We passionately feel we will make a difference and thus create a ripple effect of health and wellness for all community members which in turn will surround our young children with the positive love filled communities they deserve to grow up in and need to grow up in to be healthy contributing members of society.

UNBITI provides each community with ongoing training, professional development and one on one site support. We also provide the opportunity for First Nation communities to train their own community members to be able to provide top quality education to ensure brighter futures.  


Contact by Email
Tel: 506-458-9444
Fax: 506-458-2850

Early Childhood Education Certificate & Diploma

In 2009 UNBI Training Institute began offering their Early Childhood Education Program to communities via videoconferencing. All 15 First Nations communities in New Brunswick have videoconferencing enabling them to participate without having to relocate. We are currently developing a relationship with the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton to have the Early Childhood Development program recognized as an accredited course at the University level.

Personal Support Worker Certificate & Diploma

Professional Development Workshops

Workshops are offered on a regular bases, tailored to suit each communities and/or organizations individual needs and is provided on site. The UNBITI is working with Health Canada's Aboriginal Headstart on Reserve to facilitate workshops and "Teaching Stratifies - Creative Curriculum" from Head Start to K-4.

UNBITI provide workshops for staff and students. Workshops have included Nutrition, Menu Planning, Food Handling, Puppet Making, Policies and Procedures, Play, Reiki, Guidance, Documentation, NB Curriculum Training, and Care of the Child in Crisis. Staff create professional development workshops based on need.

Program Keywords:
    • Child and Youth Care, Early Childhood Education, Education, Personal Support Worker, Professional Development.

I am writing this letter to explain exactly what UNBITI did for me not only from a professional standpoint but also a personal one. I was very anxious to go back to school as a mature student, my own daughter was entering kindergarten that year as well. Over time I not only became a better Early Childhood Educator but also a mother. Things I knew instinctively to do I know had concrete reason behind why I was doing then both for my own child and the children I was teaching. I learned so much from not only the curriculum but from the other women I was attending school with. We shared experiences and stories and problem solved together. Our instructors never lost patience and worked with us all as individuals, we all supported each other during tough times such as losing our favorite teacher Vicki Anderson so suddenly and tragically and also through positive events such as weddings and babies. I began school waiting for it to be done however at some point I began looking forward to class and loved being a part of the little family we became. I personally gained knowledge, confidence and a true deep love for Early Childhood Education and its importance for all of our children and communities. So much so that I became a part time instructor for many years until the summer of this year where I am now a full time employee. I feel blessed to have had the opportunities I have had through UNBITI not all pleasant, however I gained and grew from them all because of the love and support I have found here. I look forward to the future of UNBITI and the possibilities for all the Students who will come through our doors and the lives of the children they will positively impact.

Respectfully yours;

Starla McDougall

Former Graduate of UNBITI & Current Instructor

Membership / Affiliations

National Association of Career Colleges

Province of New Brunswick Private Occupational Training Organization
Department of Post-Secondary Education Training and Labour

Oulton College (pending)
Licensed Practical Nurse

Mi'kmaq-Wolastoqey Centre
Mi'kmaq-Wolastoqey Centre

University of New Brunswick
ECE student transfer to Bachelor of Education


Early Childhood Care & Education New Brunswick
Cohort positions in  FASD and Autism Behavioural Analysis at the University of New Brunswick


Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs
Student financial aid

National Indian Brotherhood
Student financial aid

Atlantic Canada's First Nation Help Desk
Mi'kmaw Kina'matnewey

Video conferencing and technical support
UNBITI Graduation

Graduation Class of 2019

Graduation Class of 2018

Graduation Class of 2017

Graduation Class of 2016

Graduating Class 2019

Graduation Class 2018

Graduations Class 2018 with UNBITI Staff

Cynthia Davis, PSW Instructor,Amanda Atwin, Ashley Young, Starla McDougall UNBITI Vice Principal, Morgen Tomer, Savannah Polchies, Melissa Knockwood, Katrina Sacobie, Vicki O'Sullivan ECE Instructor 

Amanda Atwin, Melissa Knockwood, Katrina Sacobie, Morgen Tomer, Savannah Polchies, Ashley Young

Early Childhood Education Diploma

Melissa Knockwood   Katrina Sacobie   Morgen Tomer   Savannah Polchies

Personal Support Worker Diploma

Amanda Atwin       Ashley Young

Graduation Students Collage

Family and Friends

Graduation Class of 2017

Personal Support Worker Diploma

Mary Paul    Trinda Paul    Trisha Paul    Mary Buchanan

Early Childhood Education Diploma

Megan Sabattis    Gene (Diggy) Dave       Cheyenne Paul

Hannah Mitchell          Paige Polchies        Melissa Munn     Trisha Sabattis

        Vice Principal                   Instructor              
        Starla MacDougall                   Vicki O'Sulivan              

Early Childhood Education Certificate 

Ashley Presnail

Hubbard Ave. Elementary Drum Group Traditional Dancers

Dakota Verner    Hannah Burns

Friends and Family

Graduation Class of 2016

Front Center - Damien Sabattis-Carrier (Drummer) 
Front Row - Caitlin Bartlett, Misty Solomon, Serena Moulton, Misty Paul 
Back Row - Katrina Sacobie, Cathy Paul, Carley Egers, Jennifer Polches, Shirley Francis, Morgen Tomer and Cassandra Paul

Personal Support Worker Diploma 

Morgen Tomer                Caitlin Bartlett          Katrina Sacobie

Early Childhood Education Certificate 


                                      Misty Solomon                Jennifer Polches                Serena Moulton

Early Childhood Education Diploma


                          Shirley Francis     Carley Egers        Misty Paul            Cassandra Paul     Cathy Paul

Family & Friends

New Brunswick Free Tuition Program


Printable Application

FNIGC National Student Bursary

The National Student Bursary will award bursaries to First Nations College or University students enrolled full-time in Epidemiology, Population Health, Biostatistics, or Information and Data Management Technology.

To apply please visit FNIGC.ca.

Natural Resources
Source Water Protection

Environmental Contamination
Nuclear Waste Management Organization
Household Hazardous Waste

Contact by Email
Tel:  506-458-9444
Fax:  506-458-2850

Rick Perley, BBA, CBA I & II
Liasion, Acting


The Aboriginal Natural Resources Committee will monitor, assess and advise on the development and use of natural resources in New Brunswick. Natural resources shall include all renewable and non-renewable resources such as trees and plants, soil, water, animals, fisheries, minerals, hydro-carbons and energy.

The primary responsibility of the Committee shall be to protect, preserve and promote the Aboriginal people while at the same time exploring and monitoring development, conservation, employment and business opportunities in connection with the development of natural resources. To this end the Committee shall carry out the following specific tasks:

1. Development liaison opportunities with companies and federal and provincial government departments and agencies operating in the natural resources sector.

2. Monitor all regulatory processes governing the development and exploration for natural resources.

3. Explore potential business opportunities through independent or so-venture or partnership agreements.

4. Develop training programs and employment opportunities related to natural resources development.

5. Advise staff on developing a working relationship with government departments and agencies and private or public corporations.

6. Assist in and monitor negotiations with government departments and agencies and private or public corporations with a view to maximizing benefits for our people.

Environmental Contamination


Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Heavy Metal Mining

Effects on Humans

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program Online Data Search – Facility Reported Data


Union of New Brunswick Indians

  1. Environmental Contamination Related to Significant Health Issues Among First Nations in New Brunswick
  2. Mercury and other contaminants in common loons breeding in Atlantic Canada

Maliseet Nation Conservation Council (MNCC)

  1. Environmental Contaminants in Speckled Trout and Deer (Report)
  2. Environmental Contaminants in Fiddleheads and Moose Meat (Brochure)
  3. Evaluation of the level of contaminants, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in the muscle tissue and the organs of moose (Report)
  4. Evaluation of the level of contaminants, Mercury, Arsenic, Nickel and Cadmium in fiddleheads, New Brunswick(Report)

Health Canada

Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (The MIREC Study).  Established to obtain national bio-monitoring data on pregnant women and their infants and to examine potential adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals on pregnancy and infant health. Subsequently, studies of some of the MIREC children at birth, at 6 months, and at 2-5 years of age were carried out. MIREC also includes a data and bio-specimens bio-bank, for future research. We refer to this body of research as the MIREC Research Platform.


  1. Contaminants in nestling tree swallows from Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP) Sites in Atlantic Canada.
  2. FACILITY PROFILE: New Brunswick Power Generation Corporation - Dalhousie Generating Station
  3. Pollution Watch Fact Sheet 2003 New Brunswick Pollution Highlights    New Brunswick Power's Coleson Cove Generating Station reported the largest combined toxic (such as mercury and lead) and Criteria Air Contaminants (smog-causing pollutants) air releases of any facility in New Brunswick in 2003 (55,395,328 kilograms) followed by Noranda, Dalhousie Generating stations.
  4. National Pollutant Release Inventory - Regional Synopsis for the Atlantic Provinces
  5. Indigenous Land: Canada's Toxic Storehouse. John Ahni Schertow June 19, 2008
  6. Toxic Inequities: Chemical Exposures and Indigenous Communities in Canada and the United States
  7. Hormone-Blocking Chemicals Found in First Nation Families
  8. Contaminated tribe: Hormone-blocking chemicals found in First Nation families
  9. “Gender-benders”: Sex and Law in the Constitution of Polluted Bodies Scott, D.N. Fem Leg Stud (2009) 17: 241. doi:10.1007/s10691-009-9127-4
  10.  Rachel Carson’s Legacy: Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Gender Concerns GAIA 21/3(2012): 225– 229
  11. Body Polluted: Questions of Scale, Gender and Remedy  OSGOODE HALL LAW SCHOOL, Comparative Research in Law & Political Economy Research Paper No. 21/2010
  12. Sarah Marie Wiebe (2015): Guardians of the environment in Canada’s Chemical Valley, Citizenship Studies 
  13. Chemical exposure in the Aamjiwnaang communityThe McGill Daily's website. Diana Kwon, Nov. 28, 2013


Radio-Canada International has reported, "The provincial government in New Brunswick has been spraying herbicides on 15,000 hectares of crown land since the 1970’s when it first permitted pulp and paper companies to clear-cut natural forest and replace it with plantations. The taxpayer funded programme is to benefit the lumber industry by protecting fast growing softwood trees from encroaching hardwood saplings. The hardwood saplings however are an important food supply for deer and moose, and there have been suggestions that the programme has removed thousands of tons of such food and has contributed to the steep decline in moose and deer numbers in the province in the past ten years."

Stop Spraying in NB The Canadian Press:  Published Wednesday, May 18, 2016 8:47AM ADT
FREDERICTON - A group in New Brunswick says it will present a petition to members of the legislature today to protest herbicide spraying.

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) encompass an array of anthropogenic organic and elemental substances and their degradation and metabolic by-products that have been found in the tissues of exposed animals.

Listing of POPs in the Stockholm Convention

As a consequence of bioaccumulation by, bio magnification of legacy and emerging, POPs are found in biota and humans.  The potential biological effects of these contaminants on exposed plants, wildlife and fish and the people who harvest them are extremely important.

Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins ( CDDs & CDFs

Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

The World Health Organization's Dioxins and their effects on human health.

Highly dissolved in fat -this enables CDDs and CDFs to bio-accumulate in fatty tissues of living organisms, which results in higher levels in an individual than levels in the environment or in food The most vulnerable are the young who are exposed in-utero and post-partum (breast feeding) Although human exposure from food can be small, organochlorines do not break down easily and can build up in the body over time Affect human health at very low levels in terms of:

      • Cancer
      • Compromised immunity causing susceptibility to viruses and bacteria
      • Birth defects and miscarriages
      • Learning and behavioral impairments
Pesticide Spraying in New Brunswick

Spraying of pesticides containing POPs in New Brunswick during the 1950’s into the ‘70s

Contains information licenced under the GeoNB Open Data Licence

Utility Lines  1955-1972 - 17 years
Roads          1955-1973 - 18 years
Railroads      1950’s-1973 ~20 years

The intent of the spray program was to control vegetation growth at/or near features resulting in a corridor of sprayed vegetation
  • Among the oldest, most toxic and most environmentally destructive man-made pesticides
  • Agent Orange, Agent White and Agent Purple were utilized in New Brunswick
  • ~90% of exposure occurs through eating contaminated foods
  • First introduced in the 1940s and 1950s, used extensively in agriculture, forestry, and in home pest control -most were banned in the 1970s and 1980s
  • Typically very persistent, breaking down exceedingly slow once released into the environment, they are incorporated into ecosystems and food chains accumulating in sediments, plants and animal and remaining for years
  • Classed as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) which cause cancer and other debilitating diseases such as birth defects, learning disabilities, immunological, behavioural, neurological and reproductive disorders in humans and animals
Heavy Metals


Tissues undergoing growth (to which cell division is important) are especially vulnerable to methylmercury, since “methylmercury is known to inhibit cell division by causing metaphase arrest,” according to a WHO publication (Sect. 9).  Abnormal neuronal migration (as an effect of methylmercury exposure) is especially significant to discussion of origins of autism, since disorganization of brain cells, which could result from defective migration, was found in a 2014 study to be normally present in brains of children with ASD. 


Mercury and other contaminants in common loons breeding in Atlantic Canada. Burgess NM, Evers DC, Kaplan JD. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010

Heavy Metal Mining

Abandoned Mines
There are more than 375 mine openings at 63 separate mine sites in the Province of New Brunswick. Most of these openings are on private land. Many of them predate modern safety rules. They are dangerous! New Brunswick Energy & Resource Development

Effects on Humans

Effects on Humans

Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice  Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice.

Human Exposure Assessment - World Health Organization

Review of Heavy Metal Effects - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Heavy metal pollution and human bio-toxic effects - International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 2 (5), pp. 112-118, May, 2007. link too... Heavy metal pollution and human bio-toxic effects

Indigenous Women and Environmental Violence
A Rights-based approach addressing impacts of Environmental Contamination on Indigenous Women, Girls and Future Generations. Submitted to the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Expert Group Meeting “Combatting Violence Against Indigenous Women and Girls”, January 18 – 20, 2012, United Nations Headquarters, New York by Andrea Carmen, International Indian Treaty Council and Indigenous Women’s Environmental and Reproductive Health Initiative, and Viola Waghiyi, Native Village of Savoonga, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska and Alaska Community Action on Toxics Theme 2: “Contextualizing Violence”

  ‘‘Gender-benders’’: Sex and Law in the Constitution.  Dayna Nadine Scott.  Fem Leg Stud (2009) 17:241–265DOI 10.1007/s10691-009-9127-4. 
“… there is a widespread acknowledgment of a general deterioration of male reproductive health worldwide, and many believe this can be traced to endocrine disruptors such as synthetic estrogens in the environment ….. the link between endocrine disruptors, mothers, and skewed sex ratios is this: findings show that in communities with low sex ratios there are also elevated levels of hormone-mimicking endocrine disruptors in the blood of pregnant women. …. lurking in the shadows of all of this controversy is the emerging theory of ‘feminisation’ (Mittelstaedt 2008). This posits that there might be an in utero feminisation of embryos that could have been male. The idea is that we are experiencing, not just in humans but also in animal species throughout the industrialised world, a feminisation trend that is observable across a variety of markers ...... ‘‘These things theoretically have a common etiology’’, according to Dr. Devra Davis (quoted in Mittelstaedt 2008). It is hypothesised that a declining sex ratio may be just one of a number of manifestations of a feminisation trend that is tied to endocrine disruption as very broadly experienced across the industrialised world. The gender dimension of the ‘harm’ experienced by the Aamjiwnaang community is as difficult to demonstrate as it is to dismiss. The impact of pollution seems not only to be gendered, but gendering. ...the endocrine disruptors do not just dole out their environmental health horrors disproportionately as between men and women, or girls and boys, they actually seem to be driving whether we get girls or boys. The pollution is feared to be actively producing gender. At the same time, its impact intersects directly with colonial histories of health and justice. “

Toxic chemicals blamed for the disappearance of Arctic boys.   By Daniel Howden in Nuuk, Greenland, Tuesday 11 September 2007.  PREPARED FOR: Prairie Women’s Health Centre of Excellence (PWHCE) & British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health (BCCEWH) APRIL, 2009
Twice as many girls as boys are being born in remote communities north of the Arctic Circle. Across much of the northern hemisphere, particularly in the US and Japan, the gender ratio has skewed towards girls for the first time. Now scientists working with Inuit villages in Arctic Russia and Greenland have found the first direct evidence that this trend is linked to widespread chemical pollutants. Despite the Arctic's pristine environment, the area functions as a pollution sink for much of the industrialised world. Winds and rivers deliver a toxic tide from the northern hemisphere into the polar food chain.

HUMANITY AT RISK: ARE THE MALES GOING FIRST?   The Globe and Mail Sat 20 Sep 2008 Byline: Martin Mittelstaedt
Something is happening to today's boys and men: Fewer are being born compared with girls, they're having more trouble in school, virility and fertility are down and testicular cancer rates are up. Now, scientists say these 'fragile males' may be more vulnerable than females to pollutants, affecting their development as early as the womb. If so, writes Martin Mittelstaedt, it could be a bigger threat to our future than global warming.

Prenatal Exposure of Canadian Children to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Mercury  Can. J. Public Health; Vol 89; supple\;1Mmckle, G. et. al.
This article documents the exposure to environmental contaminants within subgroups of the Canadian population who are considered to be at risk as a result of the food they eat. We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury in the blood drawn from the umbilical cords of newborns in various Aboriginal communities, in a coastal community and in the general population. Average concentrations of Aroclor 1260 ranged between 0.3 and 2.0 µg/L and were clearly highest among the Inuit of Nunavik and Baffin Island and among the Montagnais of Quebec. In these groups, we found contaminant levels in the blood of newborns that exceed the threshold beyond which cognitive impairments are expected to result. Average concentrations of mercury ranged between 1.0 and 14.2 µg/L; the Inuit of Nunavik and the NWT exhibited the highest exposure levels. A portion of the Nunavik and NWT Inuit had concentrations beyond the critical threshold for the appearance of neurological consequences. The variations in exposure levels resulted from the different nutritional practices of these Canadian sub-groups.

Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Nunavik: Persistent Organic Pollutants and New Contaminants of Concern  PREPARED FOR: Institute national de santé publique du Québec & Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services
Many questions and hypotheses are raised regarding the sources of exposure, the influence of diet and the possible toxic effects of emerging contaminants.

Maternal and Infant Health and the Physical Environment of First Nations and Inuit Communities: A Summary Review.  R. STOUT, T. DIONNE STOUT & R. HARP. PREPARED FOR Prairie Women’s Health Centre of Excellence (PWHCE)and the British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health (BCCEWH) APRIL, 2009

Relationship Between Children’s Health and Environmental Contaminant.  IN: Environmental Standard Setting and Children's Health Chapter 2. The Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA)
Although the federal government does provide some funding for research on children’s environmental health, given the significant gaps in information identified in this study and through the preceding recommendations, the government should further support Canadian research that fills those data gaps. To that end, we recommend that government-funded centres of excellence for the study of environmental health be established which would include children’s health as an important focus. Such centres should encourage collaboration and coordination of research efforts between government and universities

Domain Specific Effects of Prenatal Exposure to PCBs,  Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206323  2014.
Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing.

Contaminants in Breast Milk

There is agreement that all our bodies carry heavy contaminant loads from man-made chemicals.

There is agreement that breastfeeding is indispensable for human growth and development.

There is not agreement on the health effects of contaminants in breastmilk on infants & children.

Breastfed infants are considered to be at the very top of the food chain for the simple reason that their source of nourishment is other humans, who are already at the top of the food chain.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) all tend to become magnified in the food chain over time.

Breastfeeding infants are thus the final target of POPs.

10 to 20 times as much of a mother's body burden of developmental toxins such as dioxins and PBDEs is transferred to the infant via the milk as by the transplacental route.

Highs, mid-levels and lows of infant exposures to certain toxins seem to correlate closely with highs, mid-levels and lows of autism or ASD traits, Publication of Pollution Action. 
Initiation of breastfeeding brings a sudden, major increase in toxins ingested, compatible with abrupt later appearance of negative effects. Decline of eye contact, beginning two months after birth, was found in infants who were later diagnosed with ASD.  This was not merely failure to develop, it was considered to be a derailment of initially satisfactory development.14a  The study’s authors saw this to be especially significant since “deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition’s initial description.

Through mechanisms, known and unknown, breastfeeding has a positive impact on child health, since breastmilk strengthens the immune system. However, heavy loads of environmental contaminants may threaten the capacity to reproduce immune-strengthening breastmilk.

The Postnatal Period

Why is the Early-Postnatal Period a Time of Special Concern regarding Effects of Developmental Toxins?

  • A time of high vulnerability of the developing brain to effects of known, relatively widespread toxins
  • A time of greatly increased exposures to neuro-developmental toxins
  • The brain’s period of greatest cell proliferation is during the first two years of life
  • Various brain regions are especially vulnerable to toxins during their peak developmental periods
  • The cerebellum, which coordinates muscle (and eye) movement, is growing especially rapidly in the year after birth and is therefore quite vulnerable to toxins in this period.  Neurons in the cerebellum develop following birth, whereas neurons in the cortex develop mostly before birth

Cerebellar injury seems to be the most consistent neuropathology finding among children with ASD

Contaminants in Human Milk: Weighing the Risks against the Benefits of Breastfeeding
M. Nathaniel Mead. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Oct; 116(10): A426–A434.
Given the tendency for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants to accumulate in human milk, researchers and parents alike are asking whether the nursling’s exposure to these pollutants might reduce or even override the health benefits.

Environmental Contaminants in Breast Milk.
Krista Nickerson, Vol. 51, Iss. 1, Jan.–Feb.2006, Pgs 26–34
Toxic environmental contaminants can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a family of lipophilic stable chemicals that bio-accumulate in adipose tissue and create a lasting toxic body burden. Breastfeeding provides a significant source of exposure to POPs early in human life, the effects of which are unknown, and is the subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. This article reviews what is known about POPs in breast milk and their effect on infant development to inform clinicians about the issue, provide recommendations for practice, and promote environmental and public health policies that reduce human exposure to harmful pollutants.

Developmental Environmental Toxins

There appears to be an extremely high correlation between hazardous infant exposures to toxins and the lactation process, which mobilizes toxins that have been stored in a mother’s body fat and excretes them to the infant in highly-concentrated form.

Exposures to neuro-developmental toxins are often extraordinarily high in the early-postnatal period, by comparison with established national or international standards and also in relation to prenatal exposures.
Publication of Pollution Action

Children’s Environmental Health Project

The Children’s Environmental Health Project was designed by the Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment (CAPE). It is intended to introduce clinicians (and their patients) to the fundamentals and broad context of children’s environmental health issues.  The project also covers environmental history-taking and provides links to additional resources that may be useful to the interested individual. Lastly, a commentary is provided on the physician’s role in primary prevention of environmental health problems in children.

The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment (CAPE), along with its sister organization the Canadian Health and Environment Education and Research Foundation (CHEER), are the only organizations in Canada dedicated to speaking for physicians on environmental issues. CAPE does evidence-based advocacy work related to these issues, while CHEER conducts research, educates the public, and analyses policies related to environmental issues, with particular attention to their effects on human health.

The primary tenet of the Hippocratic Oath is to do no harm. The medical profession therefore fundamentally endorses a precautionary approach that strives to protect the child when there is profound uncertainty and incomplete understanding of the risks from environmental toxins.

Health Canada

Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (The MIREC Study). 
Studies and reports have raised concerns about the number of chemicals in our bodies and the health effects that may be associated with the levels measured. Canadian data on this issue are limited.

This Canadian study has the following purposes:

  • to measure the extent to which pregnant women and their babies are exposed to common environmental chemicals;
  • to measure some of the beneficial elements in human breast milk;
  • to assess what health risks, if any, are associated with the chemical levels measured, with a focus on heavy metals such as lead and mercury;
  • to create a data and biological specimen bank for further research on fetal growth, pregnancy and health of mother and baby.

Maternal and fetal exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and manganese: the MIREC Study. Arbuckle TE, Liang CL, Morisset AS, Fisher M, Weiler H, Mihai Cirtiu C, Legrand M, Davis K, Ettinger AS, Fraser WD, the MIREC Study Group. Chemosphere. 2016 Nov;163:270-82. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.023. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
Given the susceptibility of the fetus to toxicants, it is important to estimate their exposure. Cd, Pb, Mn and total Hg were measured in maternal blood from the 1st and 3rd trimesters, umbilical cord blood, and infant meconium. Nutrient intakes of vitamin D, iron, and calcium (Ca) were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a dietary supplement questionnaire.  While Cd was rarely detected in cord blood (19%) or meconium (3%), median Pb (0.77 ìg/dL), Mn (31.87 ìg/L) and Hg (0.80 ìg/L) concentrations in cord blood were significantly higher than in maternal blood. Significant negative associations were observed between estimated Ca intake and maternal Cd, Pb, Mn and Hg, as well as cord blood Pb. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower maternal Cd, Pb, and Mn as well as Pb in cord blood.  Even at current metal exposure levels, increasing dietary Ca and vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with lower maternal blood Pb and Cd concentrations and lower Pb in cord blood.

Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function. Ashley-Martin J, Dodds L, Arbuckle TE, Ettinger AS, Shapiro GD, Fisher M, Taback S, Bouchard MF, Monnier P, Dallaire R, Fraser WD. Environmental Research. 2015;136:27-34.
This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures.

Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and fetal markers of metabolic function: the MIREC Study. Lavigne E, Ashley-Martin J, Dodds L, Arbuckle TE, Hystad P, Johnson M, Crouse DL, Ettinger AS, Shapiro GD, Fisher M, Morisset AS, Taback S, Bouchard MF, Sun L, Monnier P, Dallaire R, Fraser WD. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2016 2016 May 1;183(9):842-51. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv256. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored.

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in maternal and cord bloodfrom the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals (MIREC) cohort study. Fisher M, Arbuckle TE, Liang CL, LeBlanc A, Gaudreau E, Foster WG, Haines D, Davis K, Fraser WD. Environmental Health. 2016 May 4;15(1):59.
Pregnant women are an especially important population to monitor for environmental exposures given the vulnerability of the developing fetus. During pregnancy and lactation chemical body burdens may change due to the significant physiological changes that occur. Developmental exposures to some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked with adverse health outcomes. Similar to other studies, we found parity, maternal age, income, education, smoking status, pre-pregnancy BMI and fish consumption to be significant predictors for most chemicals. Those participants who were foreign-born had significantly higher concentrations of organochlorinated pesticides and PCBs.

Other Publications

A Strategy for Comparing the Contributions of Environmental Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children. Bellinger DC. 2012.  Environ Health Perspect 120:501–507
Source Water Protection
Water Quality, Conservation & Supply
Wastewater Treatment

Wellfield Protection Designation Order

Wellfield Protection - Protecting Sources of Municipal Drinking Water

A Guide To New Brunswick’s Watershed Protected Area Designation Order


Water Quality, Conservation & Supply
Domestic Water Quality Monitoring in New Brunswick

Water management

Understanding Legal Complexities of Integrated Water Management

Where can I get my well water tested in New Brunswick?

Wastewater Treatment

Septic Systems

Your Septic System

A Homeowner’s Guide to Septic Systems

Natural Technologies of Wastewater Treatment

Government Resources on current wetland protocols
Nuclear Waste Management Organization

Contact by Email
Tel:  506-458-9444
Fax:  506-458-2850

Rick Perley
Acting Natural Resources Liaison                                                    

 St. Mary's (Sitansisk) PowWow 2019 Display booth

Nuclear Waste Management Organization Update

UNBI and NWMO has renewed relationship for 2020 by signing new relationship agreement for June 2020 to May 2021. 

Invitation to review a draft planning framework for the transportation of used nuclear fuel

NWMO’s draft transportation planning framework document

Article: Communities Come Together to Learn July 2019 Oakville, ON

Implementing Adaptive Phased Management 2020 to 2024

What We Heard: December 2019

Council of Elders & Youth

Small Modular Reactors - Managing Used Fuel

Nuclear Fuel Cycle in Canada

Pamphlet page 1. Information disseminated at Indian Summer Games 2018 

Pamphlet page 2: Information disseminated at Indian Summer Games 2018

NB Indian Summer Games 2018, Esgenoopetitj

NWMO Council of Elders and Youth


-To provide advice to the NWMO that will help protect and preserve all creation: air, land, fire, water, plants, medicines, animals and humankind

– Guided by seven universal teachings of love, trust, sharing, honesty, humanity, respect and wisdom.

Those representing New Brunswick are Elder Donna Augustine (Rexton, NB) and Youth Madison Levi (Metepenagiag Mi’kmaq Nation, NB).

There has been no Maliseet Elder representation on the council since Elder Leslie Perley’s term expired in August 2016. Since any spent fuel that will be transported from Point LePreau Nuclear Generating Station will be transported through Maliseet territory, UNBI is expressing concern to the  NWMO that this position is not being supported.


The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was established in 2002 by Canada's nuclear electricity producers in accordance with the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA). Operating on a not-for-profit basis under the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act, the NWMO is responsible for designing and implementing Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Used nuclear fuel is created by generating electricity in nuclear power plants.

Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New Brunswick Power Corporation, and Hydro-Québec (HQ) are the founding Members of the NWMO, and along with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), are required to fund the NWMO's Operations.

The NFWA required the NWMO to study approaches for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel and recommend to the Government of Canada a preferred approach. The NWMO initiated this study in 2002, and in 2005, after a three-year dialogue with Canadians from coast to Coast, submitted to the Minister of Natural Resources a proposed approach for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel.

In June 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management (APM) as Canada's plan for the long-term management of USed nuclear fuel.

The technical end point of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of the used fuel in a deep geological repository located at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The plan also involves the development of a used fuel transportation system to transport used nuclear fuel to the repository site.

The management system involves realistic, manageable phases, each marked by explicit decision points with continuing participation by interested Canadians.


Indigenous Knowledge Policy

NWMO News and Activities

Radiation - Effects and Sources

NWMO Watching Brief on Advanced Fuel Cycles

Hosting a Nuclear Underground Storage Facility: Generations of Opportunity presented to a UNB class (ADM 2166) on Persuasive Economic Opportunities by Rick Perley

UNBI NWMO Workshop August 2005 Metepenagiag Lodge

Household Hazardous Waste

Household Hazardous Wastes

To inform and educate on how ordinary household products become hazardous and the impact that these products may have on the environment – notably drinking water sources.

Household Hazardous Wastes

Source Water Protection   - Details for USA but is relevant to Canada

What's in Your Well

Protect Your Community from Household Hazardous Waste

The Recycling Reference HGTV Canada

Recycling / Waste Drop-offs


Regional Commission Programs

Facility Address Town Postal Code Phone Number
Nepisiguit-Chaleur SWC (Redpine)

1300 Route 360

Allardville E8L 1H5 506-725-2402
Baie Ste Anne Home Building Centre 6 Ch Riviere du Portage Baie Ste Anne  E9A 1G4 506-228-4996
Crain's Bottle Depot  332 Main Street Bath  E7J 1A2 506-278-3264
Carpet Ranch / Grange a Tapis 

1263 Rue Principale

Beresford E8K 1A1 506-548-8881

Recyclage Beresford Recycling Ltee. 

709 Rue Usine Parc Industriel


E8J 2A5


Marina Bottle Exchange

87 Sr Green Rd


E3N 3Y5


Tediche Home Hardware Building Centre

2499 Acadie Road


E4N 1B


La Cooperative De Caraquet Ltee

CP5535 121 Boulevard
St-Pierre Ouest


E1W 1B7


Caraquet Home Hardware

42 Boulevard
St-Pierre Est.  


E1W 1B6


Weibe's Home Building Centre

3151 Main Street


E7K 3A5


Clark's Bottle Exchange

137 Lilloette Drive


E4A 1V8

Valley Glass Recycling

665 Babin Street


E1A 5M7


Bett's Home Hardware

420 Main Street


E9C 1E7


RONA Le Renovateur

595 Rue Carrier


E3V 3Z3


J&L Bottle Exchange

500 Boulevard Acadie 


E3V 3L2


Topmar Building Supplies

140 Clark Street 


E3A 2W7


Fredericton Region Solid Waste Commission

1775 Alison Boulevard 


E3B 4Y2


Grand Bay Redemption Centre

131 River Valley Drive 

Grand Bay-


E5K 1A1


Gilbert M Rioux et Fils Ltee

53 Rue Beaulieu 

Grand Falls/
Grand -Sault

E3Y 1C9


Southside Redemption Centre

70 Timothy Avenue South


E3C 2B8


Brooks Redemption Centre

496 Campbell Settlement Road


E6G 1Z8


Watson's General Store

2686 Route 3


E6K 1S2


Hillsborough Recycling Depot

110 Steeves Street


E4H 3C3


RONA Le Renovateur

115 Rue Notre-Dame


E8B 1H7


Centre de Remboursement Lameque Inc.

4008 Route 113 Savoy Landing Rdoad


E8S 1B9


La Societe Cooperative de Lameque Limite

68 Rue Principale


E8T 1M6

South West Solid Waste Commission

5749 Route 3

Lawrence Station

E5A 3B9


Friendly's Bottle Exchange

78 Rideout Rd

Lower Brighton

E1P 2G3


Dupuis Home Hardware

8 Ch Pont Rouge


E4K 1T7


Northumberland Co-op Ltd.

254 Lawlor Lane


E1V 3M3


Greater Miramichi Regional Service Commission

505 Route Old King George Hwy


E1V 1J8


Doran's Recycling Ltd.

390 Radio Street


E1V 2W9


Hebert's Bottle Exchange Ltd.

293 Wellington Street


E1N 1P1


Valley Redemption

323 Collishaw Street


E1C 9R2


Gorber's Bottle Exchange Ltd.

216 High Street


E1C 6C2


Valley Redemption

88 Toombs Street


E1A 3A5


Southeast Regional Service Commission

100 Bill Slater Drive, Berry Mills


 E1C 8T6 506-877-1050

Neguac Home Hardware

790 Rue Principale


E9G 1N5


Roblynn Home Hardware & Home Furniture

257 Restigouche Road


E2V 2H1


Recyclage Chaleur

571 Rue De L'Industriel


E8J 1T3


Valley Redemption Centre

1 Market Street


E2E 4B1


Richibucto Home Hardware

45 Cartier Boulevard


E4W 3W6


Centre De Remboursement le Recyclage

13790 Route 144


E7C 3B6



248 Clement Roy Road


E7C 2W7


Caissie Building Supplies

11301 Rue Principale


E4Y 2W8


Wheaton's All in One

13 Industrial Drive


E4L 3Y3


Pub's Transfer & Bottle Exchange

346 Rothesay Avenue

Saint John

E2J 2C2


Fundy Region Solid Waste- Crane Mountain Landfill

10 Crane Mountain Road

Saint John

E2M 7T8

506 738 1212

Golden Mile Redemption Centre

35 Linton Road

Saint John

E2M 5V5


RONA Le Renovateur

1976 Rue Commerciale


E7A 1A9


RONA Le Renovateur

38 Chemin Labrie


E8A 2E1


Horsman Bottle Exchange

3493 Route 106


E4J 3H5


Shediac Redeem Center

610 Main Street


E4P 2H3


Boyd Brothers Ltd.

9 Route 172

St. George

E5C 3S9


Centre de Remboursement Gaetan Bosse

6416 Route 17

St. Quentin

E8A 2J2


Keiths Building Supplies

169 Route 1

St. Stephen

E3L 1S8


Norrad's Express and Redemption Centre Ltd.

40 Albert Street,PO Box 4588


E4E 5C7


Tracadie Home Hardware

3000 Rue Principale


E1X 1G5


Maple View Redemption Centre

182 Route 385


E7G 3H6


Vail's Bottle Exchange

522 Main Street


E7M 2C2


Southern Valley Transfer Station

155 Moffatt Street


E7M 2H5



Level 1 Watersheds

01. Saint John River Basin 28,860.15
02. Miramichi River Basin 13,546.65
03. Restigouche River Basin 6,603.91
04. St. Croix River Basin 1,653.34
05. Nepisiguit River Basin 3,091.97
06. Petitcodiac River Basin 2,831.93
07. Northumberland Strait Composite 4,707.44
08. West Fundy Composite 3,727.74
09. Acadian Peninsula Composite 3,188.45
10. Chaleur Bay Composite 2,195.59
11. East Fundy Composite 1,515.16
12. Fundy Isles Composite 237.32
13. Inner Bay of Fundy Composite 494.39



01 Saint John River Basin

"At-risk" Watersheds (at least <40% Crown forest cover <35 years old)  NB’s watersheds at risk. Megan de Graaf, NB Media Co-op, April 16, 2008.

  1. Wild Goose Branch
  2. Napadogan Brook
  3. Big Forks Stream
  4. Grey Brook Composite
  5. Coal Creek
  6. Forks Stream
  7. Alward Brook Composite
THE SAINT JOHN RIVER: A State of the Environment Report (2011)
02 Miramichi River Basin

"At-risk" Watersheds (at least <40% Crown forest cover <35 years old) NB’s watersheds at risk. Megan de Graaf, NB Media Co-op, April 16, 2008

  1. Tomogonops River
  2. North Branch Big Sevogle River
  3. South Branch Big Sevogle River Headwaters
  4. Lower North Branch Little Southwest Miramichi River
  5. Little North Pole Brook Composite
  6. North Pole Stream
  7. Burnt Land Brook
  8. Six Mile Brook
03 Restigouche River Basin

"At-risk" Watersheds (at least 40% Crown forest cover <35 years old.  NB’s watersheds at risk. Megan de Graaf, NB Media Co-op, April 16, 2008.

  1. South Branch Kedgwick River
  2. West of States Brook Composite
  3. States Brook
  4. McDougall Brook
  5. Patapedia River

04 St. Croix River Basin

05 Nepisiguit River Basin

Bathurst Harbour
Forty Four Mile Brook
Forty Mile Brook
Little South Branch Nepisiguit River
Moody Brook Composite
Nepisiguit River Headwaters
Otter Brook Composite
Pabineau River Composite
Portage Brook Composite
South Branch Nepisiguit River

"At-risk" Watersheds (at least 40% Crown forest cover <35 years old) NB’s watersheds at risk. Megan de Graaf, NB Media Co-op, April 16, 2008..

  1. Middle River Headwaters
  2. Little River
  3. Forty Four Mile Brook
  4. Forty Mile Brook
  5. Nine Mile Brook
  6. Nepisguit Brook Composite
  7. Otter Brook Composite
  8. South Branch Nepisiguit River (62% land covered in forest <35 years old)
  9. Little South Branch Nepisiguit River
Bathurst Harbour

"At-risk" Watersheds (at least 40% Crown forest cover <35 years old) NB’s watersheds at risk. Megan de Graaf, NB Media Co-op, April 16, 2008..

1. Middle River Headwaters
2. Little River

Pabineau River Composite

Soil Samples taken by the UNBI on or near the Pabineau First Nation Community:IN: Environmental Contamination Related to Significant Health Issues Among First Nations in New Brunswick

Location Along Railroad
Between Pabineau + Brunswick Mines Crossing Rte 430 1,890 5,670 46 197
Parallel to Rte 430 1,180 1,850 26 197
Past Pabineau crossing Rte 430 444 1,120
Forty Mile Brook

Otter Brook Composite

Forty Four Mile Brook

Moody Brook Composite

Portage Brook Composite

South Branch Nepisiguit River

The South Branch Nepisiguit River, with 62% of the land base covered in Crown forest less than 35 years old, is the most critically affected watershed in the province.

Little South Branch Nepisiguit River

Nepisiguit River Headwaters
06 Petitcodiac River Basin

07 Northumberland Strait Composite

08 West Fundy Composite

09 Acadian Peninsula Composite

10 Chaleur Bay Composite

11 East Fundy Composite

12 Fundy Isles Composite

13 Inner Bay of Fundy Composite

NE Pipeline Plant identification

Plant Database.wmv


Bill C-30, An Act to establish the Specific Claims Tribunal and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
Comments by Darrell Paul, Executive Director
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Committee on March 10th, 2008